A World Free from Hidden Hunger

Finding new ways to fight hidden hunger is a core part of our mission, and we are always on the look-out for cost-effective and sustainable ideas. Fortifying a variety of foods with essential micronutrients is one of those ideas, and MI has led the charge in building a global food fortification network.

Food fortification has been identified by the World Health Organization, the Copenhagen Consensus and the Food and Agriculture Organization as one of the top four strategies for decreasing micronutrient malnutrition at the global level. MI is supporting this strategy through a number of fortification programs, including salt iodization, grain and oil fortification.

Our work in food fortification is aimed at compensating for what’s not available in local diets caused by such factors as micronutrient deficient foods due to poor soil conditions, lack of access to nutritious food and poverty. Monitoring, training, education and evaluation are all part of the rigorous processes involved with MI’s fortification programs around the world.

What is food fortification?

Food fortification – also known as food enrichment – is when nutrients are added to food at higher levels than what the original food provides. This is done to address micronutrient deficiencies across populations, countries and regions.

Governments working with industry, international agencies and NGOs have used this method to help reduce and eliminate micronutrient deficiencies in their populations.

Fortification of centrally-processed staple foods is a simple, affordable and viable approach to reach large sections of a country’s population with iron, folic acid, and other essential micronutrients.

Adding micronutrients to common staple foods can significantly improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and improve public health with minimal risk.  The foods most commonly fortified are salt, wheat, corn, rice, bouillon cubes, soya sauce and other condiments.


In many high income countries around the world people can consume easily purchasable fortified foods, such as flours, cereals and dairy.

However, for the many people in low to middle income countries who continue to suffer from poor nutrition, access to fortified foods remains out of reach. This is why MI works with governments to develop viable and mandatory fortification systems.

Since 1992, MI has been working in food fortification. Here are some examples of our most recent highlights:

  • INDIA: In 2013, as a result of advocacy by MI and the Indian Flour Fortification Network (FFI), flour fortification has been expanded from two to nine Indian states, with more in the plans.
  • AFRICA REGION: MI supported the FFI to organize a workshop in collaboration with Smarter Futures, Helen Keller International, the International Federation of Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus and Akzonobel. The workshop equipped 26 national champions from eight countries in Africa with the tools to develop cost-benefit projections for flour fortification.
  • NEPAL: Building on initial pilot work by MI in 2003, almost 75% of roller mills in Nepal have now joined the mandatory flour fortification program. In 2014, 689,000 women of child-bearing age were reach with fortified flour, improving their health and helping the next generation.

Did you know?

Food fortification can happen at the household level, the community level or, most commonly, at the industrial level:

  • Mass fortification is when micronutrients are added to foods commonly consumed by the mass population – such as cereals and condiments.
  • Universal fortification is when micronutrients are added to food consumed by animals as well as people, such as with iodization of salt.
  • Targeted fortification exists in such areas as school food programs, when, for example, a cracker is specifically fortified for a targeted age group.

Fortification of foods is either mandatory, which means it is legislated by the government, or voluntary.  Fortification of centrally-processed staples is a simple, affordable and viable approach to reaching major sections of the population with essential vitamins and minerals.


Fortifying commonly-eaten grains such as wheat, maize flour and rice is among the easiest and least expensive ways to prevent disease, strengthen immune systems and nurture a healthy and productive next generation.

Currently, 79 countries around the world have made it the law to fortify at least one major grain: 78 of them fortify wheat flour, 12 fortify maize products and five fortify rice. These grains are usually fortified with vitamin A, iron and folic acid, which help prevent blindness, anaemia and birth defects, and improve mental function.

MI’s Grain Fortification Programs

MI leads and supports grain fortification efforts in developing countries through a number of programs including:

  • Partnering with the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), UNICEF and the South African government to help large South African flour mills fortify maize and wheat flour with vitamin A, iron, and folic acid.
  • Working with the World Food Programme (WFP) and flour millers in Pakistan to fortify flour for distribution in Afghanistan, where it reached about 2.5 million people.
  • Supporting and expanding wheat and maize flour fortification programs, including national programs in Yemen, Iran, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bolivia.
  • Working with the Flour Fortification Initiative, a network of public and private agencies, to increase flour fortification in developing countries.
  • Advocating together with UNICEF, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, and other organizations, to increase the number of countries routinely adding iron to flour from two in 1990 to 79 in 2014, including Central and South America and the Middle East, Indonesia, Nigeria and South Africa.
While less widespread than grain fortification, fortifying cooking oil with vitamin A and other micronutrients is also a simple and inexpensive way to fight vitamin A deficiency and disease. Cooking oil is an ideal carrier for micronutrients because it is so commonly used and the cost of fortification at the production stage is low.

MI supports the fortification of cooking oil in a number of ways:

  • Training nutrition consultants from developing nations and giving them the tools to lobby their national governments and private industry to add vitamin A to cooking oils and grains.
  • Working with cooking oil producers to show them how to easily fortify their products without significantly adding to the cost.
  • Supporting governments in drafting legislation to make it mandatory to fortify cooking oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid, leveling the playing field for all oil and grain producers.
  • Helping governments, especially quality control authorities, in strengthening their capacity to  put in place a strong quality control system and a viable enforcement mechanism.
  • Helping cooking oil manufacturers upgrade their equipment for fortification and laboratories strengthening for internal quality control.